Alfred Nobel was a Swedish Chemist, Engineer, Businessman, and Inventor who held more than 350 patents in his lifetime. Getting a temper from the family business, he continued to invent many explosives including the Dynamite.
On 10th December 1896, he died of a stroke, leaving all his wealth with an amazement to all. After separating the wealth for the people that he specifically mentioned in his will, the remaining needed to be invested for earning interest for awarding prizes according to Nobel’s Will. He wanted the interest to be divided into five equal parts and distributed as follows.
To the person who made the most important,
- Discovery or invention in the field of physics
- Chemical discovery or improvement
- Discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine
- To the person who, in the field of literature, produced the most outstanding work in an idealistic direction
- To the person who has done the most or best to advance fellowship among nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and the establishment and promotion of peace congresses
Since the 10th of December 1901, the Anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s Death, the Nobel Prizes have been awarded in Stockholm, Sweden where he was born & spent a large proportion of his adult life irrespective of nationality, whether they are Scandinavian or not. He had left around 31 million SEK (about 265 million dollars today) to fund the prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2023 – Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz and Anne L’Huillier for experimental methods that generate attosecond pulses of light for the study of electron dynamics in matter.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2023 – Moungi G. Bawendi, Louis E. Brus & Aleksey Yekimov for the discovery and synthesis of quantum dots.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2023 – Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman for their discoveries concerning nucleoside base modifications that enabled the development of effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2023 – Jon Fosse for his innovative plays and prose which give voice to the unsayable.
The Nobel Peace Prize 2023 – Narges Mohammadi for her fight against the oppression of women in Iran and her fight to promote human rights and freedom for all.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2023 – Claudia Goldin for having advanced our understanding of women’s labour market outcomes